Faculty Profile: Douglas MacDonald

Photograph of DouglasMacDonald
Douglas MacDonald

School: Psychology and Interdisciplinary Inquiry

Bio:
Douglas MacDonald received his Ph.D.in Clinical Psychology from the University of Windsor.
Dr. MacDonald is a full-time faculty member at the University of Detroit Mercy and a licensed professional psychologist in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Areas of research and teaching interest include transpersonal psychology; the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality and exploration of its relation to psychological, physical, and social functioning; non-ordinary states of consciousness and their use in facilitating health; personality theory; clinical assessment, psychometrics and testing, research methods, psychotherapy, history and systems of psychology and developmental psychology. Some of his recent publications include the following:

Affeldt, D. L. & MacDonald, D. A. (2010). The relationship of spirituality to work and organizational attitudes and behaviors in a sample of employees from a health care system. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 42(2), 192-208.

Gauci, M. A., & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 21, 321-330.

Huber, J. T. & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). An investigation of the relation between altruism, empathy, and spirituality. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 52(2), 206-221.

Kassab, V., & MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Examination of the psychometric properties of the Spiritual Fitness Assessment. Journal of Religion and Health. 50(4), 975-985. DOI: 10.1007/s10943-010-9325-z

MacDonald, D. A. (2009). Identity and Spirituality: Conventional and transpersonal perspectives. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 28, 86-106.

MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Spiritual identity: Individual approaches. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles, (Eds).Handbook of Identity Theory and Research, Vol. 2- Domains and Categories (pp. 531-544). New York: Springer.

MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Studying spirituality scientifically: Reflections, considerations, and recommendations. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 8(3) 195-210.

MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. (2009). Measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs for use in yoga research. International Journal of Yoga, 2(1), 2-12

Mendez, D. M, & MacDonald, D. A. (in press, 2012). Spirituality and the MMPI-2 Restructured
Clinical Scales. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies.

Migdal, L., & MacDonald, D. A. (in press, 2012). Clarifying the relation between spirituality and well-being. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

Sheridan, B., MacDonald, D. A., Donlon, M., Kuhn, B., Friedman, H., & McGovern, K. (2011). Evaluation of a social learning theory based social skills program implemented in a school setting. Psychological Reports, 108(2), 420-436.

Ventimiglia, M., & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). An examination of the factorial dimensionality of the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Personality and Individual Differences 52, 487-491.



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Curriculum Vitae

Upcoming Presentations and Public Addresses


Degrees, Discipline, Year, Institution

Ph.D., Clinical Psychology, 1998, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario
         APA/CPA Accredited Program

M.A., Psychology, 1992, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario

B.A. (Hons), 1990, Psychology, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario
 

Current Projects and Professional Activities

ARTICLES SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION UNDER REVIEW

Lijewski, A.,  MacDonald, D. A., & Panyard, C. (2012). Examination of the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales with a sample of public safety officer candidates. Manuscript under review.

Berkowski, M., & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). Childhood trauma and the development of paranormal beliefs. Manuscript under review.

Nefouse, S., & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). Extraversion and positive emotions- clarifying their relationship. Manuscript  under review.

ARTICLES/CHAPTERS/BOOKS IN PREPARATION

Brewczynski, J., MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L.  A survey of measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs- Part 1- Research update 1999-2012. Manuscript in preparation.

Brewczynski, J.,  MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L.  A survey of measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs- Part 2- New measures. Manuscript in preparation.

Brewczynski, J.,  MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. A survey of measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs- Part 3- Student research contributions. Manuscript in preparation.

Friedman, H. L., & MacDonald, D. A. Praeger Handbook of Transpersonal Clinical Psychology. Volumes 1 and 2. Book contract accepted. Book manuscript in preparation.

MacDonald, D. A. A revised Expressions of Spirituality Inventory. Manuscript in preparation.

MacDonald, D. A. Knowledge and Knowing: Implications of Spirituality for Science and Psychotherapy. Manuscript in preparation.

MacDonald, D. A. Quantitative approaches to the study of transpersonal theory and
phenomena. Book chapter in preparation for Wiley Handbook of Transpersonal
Psychology. Manuscript in preparation.

MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. Science and Spirituality: A resource for
researchers. Book manuscript in preparation.

MacDonald, D. A. Spiritual Fitness Assessment. In A. Michalos (Ed). Encyclopedia of
Quality of Life Research. New York: Springer. Manuscript in preparation.

MacDonald, D. A., Friedman, H. L., Brewczynski, J., Holland, D., Gubrij, Z., Kumar, S. K. K., Mohan, K., Wook, H., Kuwada, M., Fukui, Y., & Ikeda, Y. Spirituality across cultures and languages. Manuscript in preparation.

MacDonald, D. A., Friedman, H. L., Brewczynski, J., Holland, D., Kumar, S. K., & Mohan, K. Developmental influences on the emergence of spirituality across cultures. Manuscript in preparation.

Nefouse, S., MacDonald, D. A., & McMahon, A. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory with a Canadian university sample. Manuscript in preparation.

Shapiro, S., Walsh, R., & MacDonald, D. A. Meditation research update. Chapter in preparation for Wiley Handbook of Transpersonal Psychology. Manuscript in preparation.

St. John, D., Kassab, V., & MacDonald, D. A. Ecopsychology, well-being, and further validation of the Nature Inclusive Measure. Manuscript in preparation.

RESEARCH PROGRAM

Primary focus of program: Empirical investigation of spirituality from the perspectives of clinical, personality, and cross-cultural psychologies. Main goals of program:  (a) To provide substantial evidence supporting a multidimensional and scientifically meaningful description of spirituality, (b) to establish the place of spirituality within the nomological net of psychological constructs, (c) to determine the utility (i.e., incremental validity) of spirituality in identifying well-being, pathology, and psychosocial adjustment, (d) to examine how spirituality impacts psychotherapy process and outcome, and (e) to investigate whether spirituality could serve a role in preventing the emergence of psychological dysfunction. Program has recently been expanded to include neurofeedback and qEEG studies on the relation of brain functions to spirituality.

Current Publications

PUBLISHED ARTICLES and CHAPTERS (Peer-Reviewed)

Affeldt, D. L. & MacDonald, D. A. (2010). The relationship of spirituality to work and
organizational attitudes and behaviors in a sample of employees from a health care system. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 42(2), 192-208.

Brewczynski, J., & MacDonald, D. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Allport and Ross Religious Orientation Scale with a Polish sample. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 16(1), 63-76.

Elmer, L. D., MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. (2003). Transpersonal psychology, physical health and mental health: Theory, research, and practice. The Humanistic Psychologist, 31(2-3), 159-181.

Friedman, H. L. & MacDonald, D. A. (1997). Toward a working definition of transpersonal assessment. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 29(2), 105-122.

Friedman, H. L. & MacDonald, D. A. (2002). Using transpersonal tests in humanistic psychological assessment. The Humanistic Psychologist, 30, 223-236.

Friedman, H.& MacDonald, D. A. (2006). Humanistic testing and assessment. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46(4), 510-529.

Friedman, H., MacDonald, D. A., & Kumar, S. K. (2004). Validation of the Self-Expansiveness Level Form with an Indian sample. Journal of Indian Psychology, 22(Special Issue), 44-56.

Fracasso, C., Franco, Z., MacDonald, D., & Friedman, H. (2011). Measuring the
Transpersonal: The research and mentoring contributions of Harris Friedman.
NeuroQuantology, 9(3), 499-514.

Gauci, M. A., & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis of the
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 21, 321-330.

Gjolaj, N., & MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Confirmatory factor analysis of a revised Death Transcendence Scale. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 33, 77-92.

Holland, D. C., Dollinger, S. J., Holland, C. J. & MacDonald,  D. A. (1995). The relationship between psychometric intelligence and the Five Factor Model of personality in a rehabilitation sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(1), 79-88.

Holland, C. J., & MacDonald, D. A. (2006). Gebser’s integral consciousness and living in the real world: Facilitating its emergence using A Course in Miracles (ACIM). International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 25, 70-76.

Holland, C. J., MacDonald, D. A., & McCabe, A. (2005). An exercise in forgiveness. Australian Gestalt Journal, 8, 57-66.

Huber, J. T. & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). An investigation of the relation between
altruism, empathy, and spirituality. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 52(2), 206-221. 

Kassab, V., & MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Examination of the psychometric properties of the Spiritual Fitness Assessment. Journal of Religion and Health. 50(4), 975-985. DOI: 10.1007/s10943-010-9325-z

MacDonald, D. A. (2000). Spirituality: Description, measurement and relation to the Five Factor Model of personality. Journal of Personality, 68(1), 153-197.

MacDonald, D. A. (2009). Identity and Spirituality: Conventional and transpersonal
perspectives. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 28, 86-106.

MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Spiritual identity: Individual approaches. In S. J. Schwartz, K.
Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles, (Eds).Handbook of Identity Theory and Research, Vol. 2-
Domains and Categories (pp. 531-544). New York: Springer.

MacDonald, D. A. (2011). Studying spirituality scientifically: Reflections, considerations,
and recommendations. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 8(3) 195-210.

MacDonald, D. A., Anderson, P. E., Tsagarakis, C. I., & Holland, C. J. (1994). Examination of the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Reports, 74, 339-344.

MacDonald, D. A., Anderson, P. E., Tsagarakis, C. I., & Holland, C. J. (1995). Correlations between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the NEO Personality Inventory Facets. Psychological Reports, 76, 449-450.

MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. (2002). Assessment of humanistic, transpersonal, and spiritual constructs: State of the Science. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(4), 102-125.

MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. (2009). Measures of spiritual and transpersonal
constructs for use in yoga research. International Journal of Yoga, 2(1), 2-12

MacDonald, D. A., Friedman, H. L., & Kuentzel, J. G. (1999). A survey of measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs: Part one- Research update. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 31(2), 137-154.

MacDonald, D. A., Gagnier, J. J., & Friedman, H. L. (2000). The Self Expansiveness Level Form: Examination of its validity and relation to the NEO Personality Inventory -Revised. Psychological Reports, 86, 707-726.

MacDonald, D. A. & Holland, C. J. (1993). Psychometric evaluation of the Singer-Loomis Inventory of Personality. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 38(3), 303-320.

MacDonald, D. A. & Holland, D. (2002). Examination of the psychometric properties of the Temperament and Character Inventory Self-Transcendence dimension. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1013-1027.

MacDonald, D. A. & Holland, D. (2002). Spirituality and boredom proneness. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1113-1119.
       
MacDonald, D. A., & Holland, D. (2002). Spirituality and self-reported complex-partial epileptic-like signs. Psychological Reports, 91, 785-792.

MacDonald, D. A. & Holland, D. (2002).  Examination of the relation between the Five Factor Model of personality and the seven factor model of temperament and character. Psychological Reports, 91, 921-930.

MacDonald, D. A., & Holland, D. (2003). Spirituality and the MMPI-2. Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 59(4), 399-410.

MacDonald, D. A., Holland, C. J., & Holland, D. (2005). Musings on the psychological meaning of openness. Australian Gestalt Journal, 8, 67-70.

MacDonald, D. A., Kuentzel, J. G., & Friedman, H. L. (1999). A survey of measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs: Part two- Additional instruments. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 31(2), 155-177.

MacDonald, D. A., LeClair, L., Holland, C. J., Alter, A. & Friedman, H. L. (1995). A survey of measures of transpersonal constructs. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 27(2), 171-235.

MacDonald, D. A., Tsagarakis, C. I., & Holland, C. J. (1994).  Validation of a measure of
transpersonal self-concept and its relationship to Jungian and Five Factor Model
conceptions of personality. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 26(2), 175-201.

Mendez, D. M, & MacDonald, D. A. (in press, 2012). Spirituality and the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies.

Migdal, L., & MacDonald, D. A. (in press, 2012). Clarifying the relation between spirituality and well-being. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

Morneau, D. M., MacDonald, D. A., Holland, C. J., & Holland, D. C. (1996). A confirmatory study of the relation between self-reported complex partial epileptic signs, peak experiences and paranormal beliefs. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 627-630.

Sheridan, B., MacDonald, D. A., Donlon, M., Kuhn, B., Friedman, H., & McGovern, K. (2011). Evaluation of a social learning theory based social skills program implemented in a school setting. Psychological Reports, 108(2), 420-436.

St. John, D., & MacDonald, D. A. (2007). Development and initial validation of a measure of ecopsychological self. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 39(1), 48-67.

Taylor, A., & MacDonald, D. A. (1999). Religion and the Five Factor Model of personality: An exploratory investigation using a Canadian university sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(6), 1243-1259.

Ventimiglia, M., & MacDonald, D. A. (2012). An examination of the factorial dimensionality of the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Personality and Individual Differences 52, 487-491.

PUBLISHED ARTICLES (Non-Peer Reviewed)

Friedman, H., & MacDonald, D. (2004). Differentiating assessment from testing. Florida 
Psychologist, 55(3), 22-23.

MacDonald, D. A. (2006, June 28). Transpersonal Psychology and Religion: A Promising Avenue of Theory and Investigation. [A Review of the book A Sociable God].  PsycCRITIQUES- Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 51 (No. 26), Article 13.

MacDonald, D. A., (2007, March 28). Where’s that wascally Wilber? The challenges of hitting a moving target [A review of the book Where’s Wilber At?]. PsycCRITIQUES- Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 52 (No. 13), Article 5.

MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. (2001). The scientific study of spirituality:
Philosophical and methodological considerations. Biofeedback Newsmagazine, 29(3), 19-21.

COMPENDIA/BOOKS PUBLISHED

Friedman, H. L., & MacDonald, D. A. (Eds.) (2002). Approaches to transpersonal measurement and assessment. San Francisco, CA: The Transpersonal Institute.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Important Conference Presentations

Boonstra, T., Strongin, E., Lilley, S. C., Gedge, E. R., Barbat, S., Switzer, K. A., McMahon, A., Wright, B., Golla, M. M., Ikanga, J., Lewitzke, K. A., Martin, C. A., Kadrich, M. R., MacDonald, D. A., & Deering, D. E. (2012, February). The five factor model and the brain: Personality and resting brain states via qEEG. Poster presented at the 40th Annual meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Friedman, H. L. & MacDonald, D. A. (1996, August). Transpersonal assessment: Implications for clinical and organizational practice. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Transpersonal Psychology, Monterey, CA.

Friedman, H. L. & MacDonald, D. A. (2002, May). Scientific approaches to the study of spirituality and health. Lecture and workshop completed at the Center of Spirituality Studies, University of Florida. Gainsville, FL.

Friedman, H., & MacDonald, D. A. (2006, August).Cross-cultural validation studies on the Self-Expansiveness Level Form. Paper presented at the 114th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Friedman, H., & MacDonald, D. A. (2012, March). Knowing when to get out of the way:
Research musings on transpersonal therapies. Workshop given at the 4th annual Israeli Conference for the Study of Contemporary Spiritualities (ICSCS). University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Holland, C. J., McCabe, A. E. & MacDonald, D. A. (1993, November). Integrality and living in the real world: Facilitating the emergence of integral consciousness using A Course in Miracles (ACIM). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Jean Gebser Society. University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario.

Ikanga, J., MacDonald, D. A., McMahon, A., Lilley, S. C., Gedge, E. R., Barbat, S., Switzer, K. A., Wright, B., Golla, M. M., Strongin, E., Boonstra, T., Lewitzke, K. A., Martin, C. A., Kadrich, M. R., & Deering, D. E. (2012, February). Spirituality and resting brain activity in a sample of university students. Poster presented at the 40th annual meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

MacDonald, D. A. (2012, March). The study of spirituality using quantitative methods: An evaluation of their usefulness for transpersonal science. Paper presented at the 4th annual Israeli Conference for the Study of Contemporary Spiritualities (ICSCS). University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. (2000, August). The assessment of spiritual and transpersonal constructs: State of the science. Paper presented at the 108th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

MacDonald, D. A., & Friedman, H. L. (2008, August). Spirituality, the Paranormal, and the brain: Clarifying the relations. In H. L. Friedman & S. Krippner (Chairs), Mysterious
minds: The neurobiology of extraordinary experiences. Symposium conducted at the
116th meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.

MacDonald, D. A., Holland, C. J. & McCabe, A. E. (1994, November).  Grofian and Gebserian perspectives on holotropic breathwork mandalas: Art as the structuration of
consciousness. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Jean Gebser Society. University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario.

Skillings, J.L., MacDonald, D.A., & Tiamiyu, M. (2002, April). Spirituality and Discipline: A new look at an old relationship. Poster session presented at the 2002 Annual Symposium on Research in Psychiatry, Psychology, and Behavioral Science, Toledo, OH.

Skillings, J.L., MacDonald, D.A., & Tiamiyu, M. (2003, August). Spare the rod?: Parent
discipline and spirituality intertwined. Poster session presented at the 111th meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, ON.

Wang, J., Brewczynski, J., & MacDonald, D. A. (2007, October). Defense mechanisms: An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the REM-71. Poster session presented at the Fall convention of the Michigan Psychological Association, Livonia, MI.
 

Research Interests

Spirituality, non-ordinary states and modes of consciousness, psychotherapy process and outcome, personality theory, transpersonal psychology, methods of transformation, psychometrics and assessment, response bias 

Research Expertise

Spirituality, test development and validation, personality, multivariate statistics and research design.
 

Expertise Working with Saybrook Students

While I  have only been a part-time faculty member at Saybrook, I have had the opportunity to work with a few students on their essays and I have chaired one dissertation which examined the effectiveness of a school-based social skills program on young elementary school children.

Research Expertise

Research Expertise Rating Guide:

  1. studied in a class or have read intensively on my own
  2. special training in the form of a workshop or equivalent
  3. taught a class in, or supervised research using this method (research practicum, on a dissertation or master's committee
  4. used in research myself
  5. published or presented at conferences my research using this method

Methods Traditionally Considered As Quantitative (But Need Not Be)

Laboratory Research 5
Field Experiments 5
Randomized Controlled Clinical 4
Quasi-experimental methods 5
Correlational Methods 5

Methods That Could Use Quantitative Or Qualitative Methods

Action Research 3
Survey Research 5
Interview Research 4
Observational Research 4
Epidemiological Research 3
Ethnography 2
Focus Groups 2
Self-Observational Methods 3
Narrative Methods 3
Feminist Methods 1
Content Analysis 3
Discovery-Oriented (psychotherapy) 1
Events paradigm (psychotherapy) 1
Archival Research 2
Case History Methods 2
Appreciative Inquiry 1
Multiple Case Depth Research 1
Hermeneutic Single Case Efficacy Design 1
Longitudinal research 2
Cross-sectional research 4

Methods Primarily Associated With Qualitative Research (But May Also Use Quantitative)

Ethnoautobiographical research 2
Hermeneutics 2
Grounded Theory 2
Phenomenology 2
Heuristic Research 2

Types of Analysis

Simple Parametric Statistics (t-test, etc.) 5
Confidence intervals 5
Analysis of Variance (including MANOVA) 5
Analysis of Covariance 5
Regression (including multiple regression) 5
Discriminant Function Analysis 5
Structural Equation Modeling/Path Analysis 5
Causal Modeling 5
Cluster Analysis 5
Survival Analysis 3
Nonparametrics 4
Bayesian Analysis 3
Meta-analysis and effect sizes 4
Factor Analysis 5
Time series analysis 3
Multidimensional scaling 3